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Cervical cancer

Cervical tumors are subdivided into benign and malignant. The first one (polyps, cysts or genital warts) are less dangerous as they don’t cause any danger to the human health and never expand to the neighboring tissues.

In their turn, malignant tumors grow quickly and expand to the healthy tissues affecting the human health. The neighboring cervical tissues and other organs are damaged. Such cancer spread is called metastasis.

Cervical cancer appears on the surface cervical cells. With the course of time, the damaged cells penetrate into the deeper layers and neighboring tissues affecting the blood and lymphatic vessels going across the entire body.

Risk factors and causes

The doctors still can’t specify the precise disease cause but numerous research in Germany and other countries worldwide describe the following cervical cancer causing factors.

There are several risk factors (the conditions provoking cancerous cell formation). The most wide-spread of them is the human papilloma virus (HPV): in combination with other factors, this virus makes the disease incidence much bigger.

  • Human papilloma virus (HPV):it’s a group of viruses affecting the uterine cervix. These viruses often cause cervical cancer. HPV-infections are extremely widespread and sexually transmitted. Some of them cause the cervical cell transformation. When diagnosed at the earlier stages, you can prevent the further disease before they become malignant. There’s a special vaccine for the women from 9 to 26 to prevent the cervical cancer causing HPV.
  • Occasional examination.CC is often diagnosed with the women that avoid regular gynecological examination. Pap test helps the doctors to detect the cancerous cells. If you apply for the doctor’s advice in time that is the half of your successful treatment.
  • Smoking. The chance of disease for the smoking women with HPV is several times higher.
  • Compromised immunity.HIV infections (the virus causing AIDS) or immunosuppressive drugs increase the CC risk.
  • Sexual relations.Women that had a lot of sexual partners also run the disease risk due to HPV infection risk.
  • Antifertility drugs.Long-term drug taking (over 5 years) increase the CC risk for the women with HPV infections. To decrease the risk you should stop taking these drugs.
  • Often pregnancy and childbearing.The research proves that if a woman gives birth to more than 5 children that may cause the cancer development with the women suffering HPV infections.
  • Diethylstilbestrol.That medicine increases the CC risk for the following generation of the girls.

HPV infections and other risk factors may not cause the cancerous cells formation. Most women having these factors never suffer the disease.


The earlycervical cancer stagesare asymptomatic. The first symptoms appear when the tumor starts growing.

  • Vaginal bleeding
    • Spotting between periods
    • Bleeding or spotting after sexual intercourse, syringing or gynecological examination
    • The periods are longer and more painful than usual
    • Bleeding or spotting after menopause
  • Pains in small pelvis and during sexual intercourse

Other infections and health problems may cause the same symptoms. You should apply for a doctor’s advice and undergo an examination to have the qualified timely treatment and prevent further disease development.

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Anatomic information

Uterine cervix is a female reproductive organ that is a lower uterine segment.

The cervical canal is running in the center with the one end opening into the uterine cavity and the other one – into the vagina. During the periods, the bloody discharge gets into the cervical canal blocked with mucus. Neither microbes nor sperm cells can penetrate this mucus. In the middle of the menstrual period, the mucus gets thinner and penetrable for the sperm. During pregnancy the cervix is closed allowing to carry a child. It is unblocked during the childbearing (up to 10 cm).